Monday 23 December 2019

Season’s Greetings

The view from Cleaver Heath in the snow

The Wirral Wildlife committee wish you a peaceful and joyous Christmas and a happy new year.

Monday 9 December 2019

Growing To New Heights

Re-growth you can hang your hat on. Photo: David Casement
Re-growth you can hang your hat on. Photo: David Casement

Wirral Countryside Volunteers (WCV) are growing in stature and confidence. The volunteers’ chair Steve Yandell was described as being a “supervolunteer” in Cheshire Wildlife Trust’s Go Wild Magazine and Tim Gannicliffe, a longtime volunteer, was recognised by Cheshire Wildlife Trust for his broad range of volunteer roles over 27 years. Congratulations to them both.

One of the volunteers’ favourite projects is hedgerow restoration and the volunteers made up seven of the nine cutters at the local Cheshire hedge laying match at Shotlach near Malpas, winning both the open and novice classes.

Colin Chapman being presented first place in the Cheshire Open Class at the National Competition. Photo: Tim Russ
Colin Chapman being presented first place in the Cheshire Open Class at the National Competition. Photo: Tim Russ

Three WCV cutters took part in the National Hedge Laying Competition, Pewsey in Wiltshire. New heights were reached by the WCV as Colin Chapman won the Cheshire Open Class. Arnold Plumley, the Cheshire judge, was delighted that everyone cut their 10m length in good time and said it was some of the most difficult judging he had done. Colin won by one point, achieving 77 points out of 100.

The extensive lengths of hedge laid recently have required an increased number of hedge stakes. Fortunately there are several local sources of stakes such as sycamore stakes from Job’s Ferry at Eastham Country Park, hazel stakes (our favourite material) from Kingsbrook Way, Lower Bebington and hazel from Hogs Head Coppice from the WCV base at New Ferry Butterfly Park.

Alex and James gained a paying hedge laying job from this photo, a great result.  Photo: Dave Edwards
Alex and James gained a paying hedge laying job from this photo, a great result.
Photo: Dave Edwards

At our recent hedge laying training day on Woodchurch Road, Landican, there were 25 participants, one person travelling from the Isle of Man for the day to join us. Arnold Pumley of the Cheshire Ploughing Hedgecutting Society was very pleased with all the trainees and spotted two that should be cutting in the Cheshire Ploughing and Hedgecutting Society competitions, surely the best thank you we can give Arnold for all his support and encouragement he gives us. Trainees and trainers had a great day hedge laying a suitable beginner’s hedge, in addition there were wheelbarrow loads of tea and cake supplied down the hedge line and leek and potato soup and roll served for lunch. Four under 26 year olds received a £25 payment from the National Hedge Laying Society.

Last year’s sections of the hedge demonstrated the best re-growth that has ever been in one season on a WCV hedge laying project, 5ft for hawthorn and 8ft for hazel from the base of the hedge. One other record broken on the hedge laying training day was the amount of litter collected from the hedgerow, 16 Biffa bags.

Bags of hedgerow litter. Photo: Paul Loughnane
Bags of hedgerow litter. Photo: Paul Loughnane

Friday 29 November 2019

Wirral Tree Strategy

Wirral Tree Strategy

The value of trees is being recognised. Please read and comment on the draft Wirral Tree Strategy.

Comments need to be in by 20 December. Everyone can read it and give their feedback to the Council.

Tuesday 19 November 2019

Award Winning Volunteer

Presentation of the award to Tim Ganicliffe (right)

Presentation of the award to Tim Ganicliffe (right). The other people are (left to right) Charlotte Harris (CEO of Cheshire Wildlife Trust), John Thurston (son of Eric Thurston after whom the awards are named) and Felicity Goodey (President of Cheshire Wildlife Trust).

Eric Thurston was an eminent Cheshire naturalist and also an experienced and skilful photographer. The Eric Thurston Award is the highest accolade for volunteering given by the Cheshire Wildlife Trust. It seeks to showcase the Cheshire Wildlife Trust’s most inspirational and outstanding volunteers, recognising the importance of wildlife, conservation and the natural environment throughout both urban and rural areas of Cheshire.

One of this year’s recipients is Tim Gannicliffe. Tim has been working locally in Wirral with the Cheshire Wildlife Trust for 27 years. His strength is carrying out fresh water invertebrate surveys in ponds and streams. Tim’s survey work has been important in assessing Local Wildlife Sites, and the state of the Clatter Brook which runs through Thornton Wood and he has also been monitoring nitrogen inputs at Red Rocks and at Thornton Wood.

Tim Ganicliffe (left) with Stephen Ross, Chairman of Wirral Wildlife.

Tim Ganicliffe (left) with Stephen Ross, Chairman of Wirral Wildlife.

He is a valued volunteer at New Ferry Butterfly Park, especially encouraging participation in pond dipping. This includes our very busy opening days (circa 1000 visitors), regular Sunday opening and on group visits. He shares his expertise, enthusiasm and knowledge of the pond’s denizens.

Tim is also involved in a broad array of conservation networks within Wirral. The hedgerows of New Ferry Butterfly Park have been kept in good order partly through Tim’s skills at hedge-laying. Importantly Tim has been tenacious in his removal of Himalayan balsam in the Dibbin catchment. These events are not exactly popular: “Come to the wood to be stung by nettles, scratched by brambles and bitten by flies whilst removing the Himalayan balsam!”. Sometimes there is only one other volunteer. Tim has recently taken on a new role on the steering committee of the recently created Dee Coastliners project. As you can see, Tim certainly deserves this Award.

Wednesday 13 November 2019

Autumn 2019 at Cleaver Heath

Cleaver Heath in November (above) and August (below)

I recently got back from a trip to South America where spring was in progress. Further north in the tropics, the ‘seasons’ were described as simply rainy or dry. Returning to Cleaver I was reassured that normal service had resumed and autumn colours were starting to show. Above is a comparison of our reserve in August and November.

You will know that our native broadleaf trees turn off photosynthesis in autumn losing their green colour and preserve energy by absorbing nutrients back down from the leaves. Below (left) is an oak sapling in Cleaver in the transition phase where the leaf is yellowing while the leaf veins are still green as the chlorophyll drains back. Now that the predominant fluid flow is down rather than up, we can carry out our glyphosate stump treatment more effectively. The glyphosate is colourless but we add a blue dye to make sure we can see what has been done and also reduce the trip hazard (below right).

Oak leaves (left) and stump treatment (right)

The last Oldfield swallows left on 22 September just a few days earlier usual. I saw 2 Chiffchaff in Cleaver on 14 September. One of them was actually singing and continued to do so for a few more days. In autumn, Wirral sees quite few birds on passage back to warmer climes while the first of the winter visitors start to arrive. We had a couple of Redwings in our rowan tree as early as 9 October this year.

Spotted flycatcher

Local resident Frank Burns, whose garden backs on to Cleaver, was lucky enough to spot, and photograph, this Spotted Flycatcher in late September (above). It stayed a couple of days and then, presumably, continued its journey south suitably refuelled with Cleaver insects. Frank was able to observe, from his kitchen window, the typical flycatcher behaviour where the bird darts off following an unseen prey then loops round back onto its chosen perch.

As well as plentiful insects, we have been seeing lots of spiders tending their webs in the heather. These are most visible in the morning when the low sun and moisture make them stand out. As well as the traditional spiral webs (below left) we saw lots of ‘sheet’ or ‘hammock’ webs (below right).

Spider webs

Sometime this winter, we hope to get access to a list of the invertebrates found on Cleaver during a series of visits this summer by colleagues from the World Museum (Liverpool). The sightings are being logged in the rECOrd biological database at It should be interesting.

We are being visited soon by a reptile expert who is going to advise us on reptile conservation and survey techniques. As far as we know our only resident reptile is the Common Lizard. Larger lowland heath sites also have Adders. We don’t know of any recent sightings on Wirral.

On the subject of surveys, we duly completed our 26-week transect survey from Cleaver to Church Farm. The summary which went to Butterfly Conservation along with our data said:
‘This 2km transect, which is mainly along farmland footpaths, yielded similar numbers overall to last year with a few anomalies: Painted Ladies (70 this year, none last year); fewer whites particularly the early ones, and especially the Large Whites; many fewer Common Blues; Commas and Small Skippers were down: Red Admirals and Speckled Woods were up. The overall species count (17) was typical. We didn’t see anything we hadn’t seen before.’

Workday at Cleaver Heath

We have now had 3 formal Autumn/Winter workdays in the 2019-20 session. Birch control on the upper heathland panels is now complete and we took the opportunity to extend the stoning on the main path using the spanking new wheelbarrow provided by the trust (above). There is always something to do no matter the weather. In this case we were waiting to be sure the rain would clear to allow stump cutting to go ahead. There is little point in cutting if you don’t treat the stumps more or less straight away, or if the rain is about to return and wash it out.

As well as continuing birch control in the lower panel, our next sessions will include coppicing of the tallest birch saplings in our designated scrub area and European gorse in the main stand between heathland panels. Oh, and we still haven’t cleaned our nesting boxes. We certainly need to get on with the Tawny Owl box as these early nesters will soon be scouting for accommodation.

Birch Milkcap (Lactarius tabidus)

Fungi are present all year round in woodland and an essential part of the ecosystem but it is in autumn that we tend to be more aware of them via their fruiting bodies. One of our local volunteers is particularly interested in fungi and we have been drawing on his expertise to log what is present in Cleaver. At the latest count, some 15 species have been identified. In last year’s Autumn Newsletter, I was able to highlight quite an array of colourful fungi all showing well. There were Fly Agaric (the spotty red poisonous ones) everywhere. This year, I don’t recall seeing a single Fly Agaric here or in Heswall Dales. Presumably the state of the ground plays a role. We had quite dry conditions in the summer and now quite a bit of water-logging in the reserve. Nevertheless there are many interesting fungi to look for including this Birch Milkcap (Lactarius tabidus) photographed by Gianfranco Uli (above). Note the latex dripping from the damaged gills. The milky substance gives rise to its name.

Cleaver Heath entrance

Alan Irving
Volunteer Reserve Warden for CWT
Cleaver Heath
November 2019

Saturday 9 November 2019

What’s On In Cheshire This Winter

Wild Question Time

Friday 15th November 2019, 5:30pm
Parkgate Road, University of Chester

Are you aged between 16-25 and want to speak up for the environment?! Come along to our Wild Question Time!

On Friday 15th November, Cheshire Wildlife Trust are hosting a Wild Question Time with the University of Chester. This is for anyone aged 16-25 who wants to be part of the environmental debate. Our panel will include councillors, parliamentary candidates and sitting MPs from parties across the political spectrum. This is your chance to ask your political leaders specific questions about our natural world and hear what they are going to do to put nature into recovery.

Cost: Free, however donations to the charity are always welcome

Annual General Meeting, followed by Eric Thurston Memorial Science Forum

Saturday 16th November 2019, 10:00am - 3:00pm
Ness Botanic Gardens, Ness

Are you a member of Cheshire Wildlife Trust? Would you like to hear about our achievements this year, plans for the year going forward and to have your say on how we are governed? Well join us for our AGM within the beautiful surroundings of Ness Botanic Gardens.

This year's AGM will be followed by our Eric Thurston Memorial Science Forum, where you can hear from the researchers we're working with about their findings of the local state of nature in the North West.

Cost: Free without lunch or £8 with lunch included

Searching for rare mossland spiders by Richard Gallon

Wednesday 20th November 2019, 8:00pm - 10:00pm

Nantwich Methodist Church, Nantwich

Join South Group local group for their monthly winter talk.

Cost: £3 on the door

No booking required

The birds and insects of Gowy Meadows

Friday 6th December 2019, 7:00pm - 9:00pm
Holly Bank House, Thornton-le-Moors

The wildlife of Gowy Meadows Nature Reserve changes dramatically throughout the seasons, from wintering waders and water birds, to breeding warblers and a diverse insect life. Join naturalist and site surveyor Steve Holmes as he looks through some highlights from every month of the year. Whether you're planning a trip to Gowy Meadows or wonder what you've missed, this is essential listening to really get the most from the reserve.

Cost: £5 per adult, £4 per adult for members

Family events this November and December

Family Forest School

Family Forest School is an event for all the family. Activities may include den building, fire lighting, exploring the woodlands wildlife, environmental art, games and free play.
(Not suitable for children aged under four years old - take a look at our Nature Tots sessions below.)

Saturday 9th November 2019, 10:30am - 12:30pm

Sunday 17th November 2019, 10:30am - 12:30pm

Cost: Free thanks to players of the People's Postcode Lottery

Booking essential for both sessions.

Nature Tots

Nature Tots is our toddler group aimed at encouraging pre-school children, aged 2-4, to gain a love for nature and wildlife. Join us for lots of different activities; hunt for mini-beasts, play games, search for twigs, leaves, seeds and make natural crafts to take home, listen to stories and have lots of fun exploring.

Nature Tots at Spud Wood, Warrington

Wednesdays 13th, 20th and 27th November and 4th and 11th December, 10:00am - 11:30am

Cost: Free thanks to players of the People's Postcode Lottery

Booking essential each week

Nature Tots at Moore Nature Reserve, Warrington

Thursdays 14th, 21st and 28th November and 5th and 12th December, 10:00am - 11:30am
Cost: Free thanks to players of the People's Postcode Lottery

Booking essential each week

Six weekly sessions, starts Tuesday 5th November, 10:00am - 11:30am

Cost: £30 per child or £24 for members, for all six sessions

Friday 1 November 2019

A Light In The Dark

Cheshire Wildlife Trust’s latest newsletter shares some fascinating facts about fungi.

Mycena chlorophus

Imagine taking an evening autumn stroll through your local woodland, crunching over the crispy fallen leaves and watching the light slowly fade. Something catches your eye in the now dark surroundings, a dim light, almost like a comforting bedside night light. The closer you get the more obvious it becomes that the small glowing hummocks are in fact fungi.

Bioluminescent fungi are fungi that, incredibly, glow in the dark. There are around 80 species worldwide that produce the fairy-like luminosity which has caught many a dreamer’s imagination. Mark Twain even noted the phenomenon in his book,The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn, writing, "Rotten chunks that’s called ‘Foxfire’ that just makes a soft kind of glow when you lay them in a dark place."

Foxfire, is just one of the many words through the ages that has been used to describe the glowing fungi. The bioluminescence emitted has also been mistaken for strange fixations such as a ghostly presence or fairy light.

So what is it about certain species of fungi that makes them glow? Well, it’s caused by a chemical reaction between oxygen and the compound luciferin in the presence of an enzyme. This results in the formation of oxidized luciferin (oxyluciferin), which when it decomposes, gives off light. The bioluminescence of fungi is produced without heat and still glows in the daylight - it’s just not easy to see. The luciferin found in fungi of this kind is actually the same compound that is found within glow worms and those deep sea curiosities we watch on David Attenborough’s Blue Planet.

Sulphur tuft

Why would fungi glow?

There have been many debates as to the reason. Some argue it is to attract more insects to carry off their spores; some say it’s just an unusual by-product of fungal metabolism. Whatever the reason it’s been supplying us with endless entertainment for years and even sometimes been put to use. It’s been said that the soldiers in the WWI trenches fixed bits of rotten wood to their helmets to guide their way in the dark.

The luminescent species we have in the UK include the likes of Sulphur tuft (above) and Mycena chlorophus (top). They don’t however give off as much light as some species overseas. In the United states, Omphalotus illudens' ability to glow in the dark has given it its common name of Jack O’Lantern.

So, you now know it’s not all doom and gloom in the decaying world of fungi - there is always a light in the dark to be found.

Fungi detective

Be a fungi detective

Autumn is the perfect time of year to get out there and look for fungi. Use our above guide to help you ID some of the most common species.

Don't know where to begin? Our nature reserves are a great place to start the search:

Let us know what you find and where by sharing your pictures with us on Facebook, Twitter or Instagram.

Friday 25 October 2019

Charity Spectacular at Gordale

Have an evening at Gordale Garden Centre and help raise money for Cheshire Wildlife Trust.

Monday 11th November

6 – 9 pm

Gordale Garden Centre, Chester High Road, Burton, CH64 8TF

£6 (£3 from every ticket sold goes to charity)

Tickets available at Gordale or from the Cheshire Wildlife Trust website:

Ticket includes a welcome drink and nibbles, food tasting, musical entertainment, live demonstrations.

Also enjoy a 15% discount on all purchases sold during the evening.

Monday 21 October 2019

Thank You Ed and John

At our recent AGM two committee members retired. We will miss them both as they have made significant contributions to the group and for wildlife in Wirral.

Ed (on the left) and John received Thank You certificates from Cheshire Wildlife Trust.

Dr John Gill

John has been our Treasurer for the last 19 years. He has not only kept excellent accounts but has always taken a full and active part in our affairs, from helping remove invasive rhododendron and coppicing hazel to participating in events such as Ness Children’s Day, Apple Day, Walks, Events and Talks. His skills at proof reading were much appreciated when we produced our paper and online newsletters and he would always scrutinise our draft papers and propose wise and thoughtful amendments. John’s abilities as a photographer have helped us keep a good record of our activities such as New Ferry Butterfly Park Open Day and Apple Days. John has completed the Wirral Coastal Walk on 15 occasions, each time raising considerable donations for Cheshire Wildlife Trust. Each year he devises a brain-teasing cryptic quiz – look on our website or buy a copy at our next talk – and has promised to continue with this tradition.

Dr Edwin Samuels

Ed, who is a skilled botanist and bird watcher, spent his final pre-retirement year from Unilever at Cheshire Wildlife Trust so it was perhaps inevitable that he would find a role with Wirral Wildlife. On his retirement he took up Recording for Wirral Wildlife and for over ten years he has organised all our vital Recording work. For decades Ed has been a recorder of Wetland Birds and undertaken monthly counts of wintering birds on our estuaries and wetlands. He is also a Licenced Ringer and completed a long running study of breeding birds in a Welsh Woodland. As well as completing such painstaking work Ed has been a keen helper at our Apple Days and knows the intricacies of our mincer and apple press, even creating a modification to make it safer for children to help with the machinery. Ed has made an invaluable contribution for which we are all most grateful. It says much for his contribution that we have replaced him with two people.

Ed (wearing the hat) with the apple pressing equipment.

Saturday 19 October 2019

Out In All Weathers

Recording flora and fauna on our Reserves and other local sites is a vital part of the work of Wirral Wildlife.

Whatever the weather our Recorders will be there at the appointed time.

The photo above shows some very wet volunteers doing the annual survey of the fixed quadrats at Thurstaston Common - inspected by some equally wet Galloway heifers.

Sunday 13 October 2019

Monitoring Wildlife at Chester Zoo Nature Reserve

RECORD are holding another Wildlife Exchange Session at Chester Zoo this month.

Book your place on eventbrite here

Wednesday 30th October
7-9 pm
Cedar House, Chester Zoo

Come and find out about the regular wildlife monitoring that happens each year at the Chester Zoo Nature Reserve, and discover how you can get involved. Sarah Bird, Chester Zoo’s Biodiversity Officer will lead the session, with Eric Fletcher, RECORD Manager, telling us about the wildlife highlights.

In the last 3 years Andy Jennings-Giles has developed a range of systematic monitoring methods for various species groups, to help us to understand how wildlife is changing on the reserve. We now need volunteers to help with this monitoring. Whether you want to help with regular recording or just drop in now and then, its all valuable data and we want to know what you see. We will describe the monitoring techniques, and explain how RECORD can support you to help us, and develop your own wildlife identification skills too.

These evenings provide an opportunity for wildlife recorders, conservationists and anyone with an interest in local wildlife to get together in a relaxed environment and find out about our natural environment and how it is changing. The ‘exchange’ sessions also allow sharing of ideas, knowledge, experience and views on Cheshire’s natural history and how we can monitor and conserve it.

Tea/coffee and snacks will be provided.

Hosted by RECORD and Chester Zoo.

Please note photos may be taken at this event for use in RECORD publications.

If you would like to sign up to the RECORD mailing list to hear about future events please click here

Kind regards,
Tel: 01244 383749
RECORD LRC, Cedar House, Chester Zoo, Caughall Road, Upton, CH2 1LH.

Friday 6 September 2019

Wildlife Exchange Session

Here is information about this month’s RECORD event, held at Chester Zoo.

Meadow and Hedgerow

We would like to invite you to our upcoming Wildlife Exchange Session, book your place on eventbrite here.

Join us on our September Wildlife Exchange Session as we welcome back Dr Hilary Ash, who will take us through the whys and wherefores of hedgerow recording; detailing how recording hedges can make a vital contribution to conservation. Not only does hedgerow recording identify important habitats within our landscape, but it ensures these wildlife-rich havens are conserved.

Hedges perform vital functions within our environment, from preventing soil erosion, retaining livestock and providing valuable connectivity for wildlife to commute into the wider environment. However, if you’ll excuse the pun, our hedges are often overlooked and underappreciated! In 1946 the UK had an estimated 500,000 miles of hedgerow, over half of which was lost by 1993; when only 236,000 miles remained (figures from PTES).

Join us to find out how you can get involved in hedgerow recording and help prevent further loss of these important wildlife highways.

These evenings provide an opportunity for wildlife recorders, conservationists and anyone with an interest in local wildlife to get together in a relaxed environment and find out about our natural environment and how it is changing. The ‘exchange’ sessions also allow sharing of ideas, knowledge, experience and views on Cheshire’s natural history and how we can monitor and conserve it.

Tea/coffee and snacks will be provided.
Hosted by RECORD and Chester Zoo.

Please note photos may be taken at this event for use in RECORD publications.

If you would like to sign up to the RECORD mailing list to hear about future events please click here

Kind regards,
Tel: 01244 383749
RECORD LRC, Cedar House, Chester Zoo, Caughall Road, Upton, CH2 1LH.

Wednesday 4 September 2019

‘Trees In A Changing Climate’ conference

‘Trees In A Changing Climate’

Saturday 19th October
from 10 a.m.

Birkenhead Town Hall


A conference for Tree Wardens, Friends of Parks Groups, Tree Officers, Councillors, Council officers and staff, volunteers and workers in Wildlife, Biodiversity and environmental groups.

An opportunity to network and provide commentary on issues relevant to realistic long-term and strategic planning for trees in the North of England. The new Wirral Borough Council collaborative Tree Strategy will be unveiled as an example of work-in hand, linked to Climate Change Strategies.

Book your ticket here:

As the Tree Council are hosting the meeting, there will be a cadre of Tree Wardens, but we are keen to say that the meeting is for everyone who wants a tree strategy for Wirral and is keen to get involved with the Wirral Tree Strategy, and management of trees in your local areas.  So if you can help get the word out as widely as possible, that would be great.

Wirral Council has also made a climate change statement and are looking across the Council to explore how this statement will affect and influence the working of the Council. The Tree Strategy is a Council wide strategy, cutting across all departments and teams.

If anyone who will be attending the event can help out on the day, please contact Helen Ellis ( as she is one of the key organisers of the day at Birkenhead Town Hall.

Sunday 25 August 2019

Can you help us find reptiles?

Cheshire Wildlife Trust would like to know if you spot a reptile.

Reptiles are found in a wide range of places, from sandy heaths and woodland ridges to garden compost heaps. They’re fascinating animals that are often sadly forgotten about when talking about interesting UK wildlife.

Did you know...?

Slow-worms (below) are neither worms nor snakes, but are in fact a legless lizard - you can tell it's a lizard because they're able to shed their tail and they blink.

Common lizards (below) and adders (top) are unusual among reptiles as they incubate their eggs inside their body, ‘giving birth’ to live young rather than laying eggs.

Grass snakes (below) are our longest snakes, growing up to one and a half meters in length, but they’re really a big baby. When threatened by one of its many predators, the grass snake often 'plays dead', perhaps making itself less appealing to eat.

Unfortunately, reptiles are suffering global declines, with many threatened with extinction. They’re particularly vulnerable in the UK because they tend to live in small isolated areas divided by built up areas and farmland. This means they struggle to spread out.

Nowadays they're only found in places like heaths and open woodland because they need places to shelter and hibernate. As they’re cold blooded, they also need open areas to bask to warm up before they can become active.

We know very little about where our reptiles live, meaning it’s difficult for us to protect them or to help them spread into surrounding areas.

Help us by sending us your sightings

If you see a reptile whilst out and about, email us your sightings. Photos are the most useful along with the location (address or grid reference if possible). Other useful information would be the number seen, the size, what they were doing and the type of habitat you saw them in e.g. garden, grassland, woodland, heather or moorland.

Monday 19 August 2019

Royal Fern Spotted

Last Friday we were walking down Telegraph Road from the Thurstaston Common car park, to do a plant survey on the heathland by Dawpool Cottages. On the damp rock in the road cutting we found a flourishing colony of Royal Fern - at least 10 fruiting plants and many small ones.

This species suffered from over-collection during the Victorian fern craze and is still uncommon in Wirral. Easily seen as it is next to the pavement, about 2m up the rock wall, but do take care along that busy road.

Dr Hilary Ash